Check your local papers, especially the free shoppers, for information about upcoming shows Another venue for craft retailing is at the local flea markets that spring up in every community just about every weekend. Again the entrance cost is usually minimal. Ultimate Small Shop Result The only other thing you need is a little marketing savvy. With little cost and some effort, you will be well on your way to knowing whether there is a market for your craft. Once you know that, you can move on and think about other ways of selling, such as in galleries, on consignment, on eBay or from your own website. Once you spend your precious time and energy creating a scrapbook, make sure it lasts! There are a few simple things you can easily do to ensure that your scrapbooks look just as good as the day you finished them, for years to come. The first thing to avoid is paper that is not lignin-free. You’ve probably heard that before, and it is true, but what is lignin anyways? Lignin is a stiff component of a plant that quite literally holds it together. Although lignin is necessary for plants and trees, you want nothing to do with it! After a while, lignin will cause photos, fabrics and other paper that touch it to turn brown. Yes, the lignin-free paper does cost more, but it is a vital part of preserving your cherished scrapbooks. If the paper is not lignin-free, it will eventually discolor your photos and other materials touching it. So when buying paper for your scrapbooking projects, be sure to look for packages that say “lignin-free,” because if it doesn’t say it, then it most likely isn’t.The fabric is a big concern for preserving your scrapbooks, but unfortunately, it is often overlooked. Many people assume that all fabrics are acid-free, but they aren’t. Silk actually goes through an acid bath during the manufacturing process, as well as many tie-dyed fabrics. This isn’t to discourage you from using it, not all. Just try to make sure that no photos directly touch fabric, and if you need them to overlap, make sure there is a layer of paper between the two. Another consideration when using fabrics is if the color will bleed off onto your page and other things touching it. To test for this, cut a square inch off and soak it in a glass of water overnight. If there is no color bleeding from it the next day, then there isn’t any risk to your scrapbook. But if you do see color in the water, or collecting at the bottom of the glass then don’t use that fabric in your scrapbook at all. When using glitter, be sure there is a top layer of spray adhesive to lock them down, or better yet use special glitter glue where the glitter is mixed right in. If this is not done right the glitter will slowly fall off, and loose glitter means scratched photos. After you have planned the layout for your photos, be sure that you are using the right kind of mounting tape for them! Regular mounting tape is fine for buttons and bottle caps, but when it comes to mounting photos you need to use special photo mounting tape which is completely acid-free. Ultimate Small Shop Member If you don’t, your photos will slowly discolor. The tape should say “acid-free” right on the packaging.
Time spent earnestly involved in the creation of something designed and made with one’s own ingenuity can be quite enjoyable. So now when I don’t feel motivated to do more practical things I often turn to an idea about some device or other that I’ve wanted to try making but never got around to. Ultimate Small Shop Videos I can recall many such improvised devices that gave me satisfaction and enjoyment.Ideas for things to make come from many places. Most often the idea comes from some need. I do a lot of keying of text using a computer keyboard. I tend to keep the room temperature a bit cool, cool enough that my hands become uncomfortable. I ended up rigging a length of electrical heating tape wound in a large coil-shape to surround the keyboard. Tying the heat tape to a large piece of cardboard keeps it in place. It does a nice job of keeping my hands warm. I can leave the room temperature set where I want it. As far as I know, you can’t buy anything like that. Building and inventing improve my understanding of mechanical devices and materials. It gets easier to manipulate and modify the physical things that are so much a part of everyday living. With effort and imagination, often new devices can be made or existing ones improved for my enjoyment and satisfaction. Both intuition and logic are used to make a homemade gizmo. The more the two abilities are used together, the more powerful the combination becomes. A strong partnership of reason and creativity helps a person to produce and enjoy life. It is fun and satisfying to conjure up and build simple devices. Those created items command more appreciation than more casually acquired, purchased items. And it feels good proving that imagination and ingenuity can make life better. The process of invention seems magical. The mind pieces together what it has already made some sense of into something new. It seems that even the most obscure result can eventually be produced. The grass hut and the keyboard heater each gave me a little taste of that magic. Until recently crafts were usually sold locally or, at best, regionally. Now you literally have the whole world at your fingertips! Some of you may choose a gradual progression from selling to friends to selling at fairs and shows, to retail selling … and so on. Others may decide to jump directly from selling within their circle of friends to the worldwide Internet market – the costs are low enough that this is surprisingly doable. My first career was as a special education teacher. After 15 years of teaching, I earned an MBA degree followed by CFA (Certified Financial Analyst) certification. Ultimate Small Shop Pdf Download After 15 years in finance I was a vice-president and portfolio manager of a major insurance company before I was downsized.
Once I had the walls completely filled in and trimmed out, I built my doors.  I clamped them in place each day until after I painted.  Then I installed the hinges and hardware.  I decided to change my original plan of building a hinged 4 foot door.  I was worried that the weight of it would cause it to sag over time.  I had also decided at this point to install a small unused AC in the back wall.  I thought that by keeping one of the doors closed, I could keep more cold air in during the hot summers.
I have different toolboxes for different jobs around the house. Occasionally I’d grab a tool out of one box and then put it away in another. Eventually all my flat-head screwdrivers would end up in one toolbox. To solve the problem, I now mark the handles of the tools and the corresponding toolbox with a band of colored electrical tape. Now all the tools are in the box where they belong. — Kim Litkenhaus Marino
It can become very difficult and time-consuming to constantly track the amount and purchase price of all your inventory, but it is hugely important to your bottom line. Every time you catch yourself saying, “Sorry, we don’t have that in right now,” you are leading your business in a very unhealthy direction. Not only does being out of something represent a lost sale opportunity, but in a world where consumers place a huge premium on their time, it could mean that you lose that customer forever while hurting your brand reputation in the process.
My plugs share breakers. I have them split up so there are no more than 2-3 receptacles on a single breaker. Ideally, each plug would indeed have its own breaker. But in a one-man shop where only one tool will be used at a time, I thought it would be more efficient and cost-effective to consolidate a bit. But the dust collector is on its own circuit since that will always run concurrently with other tools.
It’s no accident that some of the best marketers in the tech startup industry are known as “growth hackers.” Think about your target demographic (e.g. students, local mothers, teenagers) and find any way you can to get the word out to them. Email mommy bloggers, hand out free samples at the local college, or write your website on all the napkins you hand out with your food. There is no substitute for action.
Make sure to utilize the tax-specific resources provided by the SBA and the IRS to fully research your federal and state tax obligations. These include, but are not always limited to: corporate income tax, employer tax and excise taxes. For most small businesses, the right first step is applying for an Employee Identification Number, which you can do using this IRS EIN online application. Depending on your state, you might also need to register for a sales tax license.

He’s also providing power to a cool light grid we’re building from several old fluorescent fixtures that we salvaged from past remodeling jobs. With six four-tube fixtures, we should get plenty of light. In a work space you want to install these lights high enough so they don’t get in your way when you’re moving materials but low enough to provide good even light.
While we think a battery isolator and a 200-watt solar kit provide more than enough power for most vanlifers, some people may want additional ways to generate electricity and charge up their batteries. Especially if you’re planning on running power-hungry electronics like TVs and air conditioners, adding a generator and/or shore power hookups will help you deal with the extra load.
We did a lot of research and landed on the Bestek 300W Power Inverter. We usually had our devices plugged in while we were driving so they'd be charged by the time we parked for the night. And if we were ever really in a pinch, we would plug it in for 10 minutes with the car off, then another 10 minutes with the car running until it was sufficiently charged.
Tired of holding a flashlight between your teeth while working in the dark? Make a light stand by bending a 2-ft. section of 12- or 14-gauge electrical cable into a U shape. Duct-tape the light to the ends of the cable. The wire can be shaped into a hands-free supporting base for the flashlight or bent into a hook for hanging. — Paul and Haylee Lytle. Check out another hands-free light hack.

I set an initial budget of $10,000 to build the shop – everything from studs and drywall to hand tools and machinery. The final number was over by $1,000, but I’m still very happy with the result. The shop is now my haven, with a good sound sys­tem and good lighting. Every time I go back into the shop, it is exactly the way I left it, because it is my shop!
Now, another thing we’ve recycled that’s kind of unusual, all the wood walls you see here were actually and old backdrop that we used on a show a couple of years ago, perfect for our wood walls we need. Now, to store some of the tools, we have we created this simple little shelf unit out of cedar. And you know it kind of adds some of that warm wood feel to a shop, which I wanted it to look more like this than just plain painted walls.
The threshold area, also known as the "decompression zone," is the very first space that prospective customers step into when they enter your store. It typically consists of the first five to fifteen feet worth of space, depending on the overall size of your store. It's also the space where your customers make the transition from the outside world and first experience what you have to offer.
When Julie Owen bought Cocobolo Interiors in 2008, she set about adding more contemporary items to the Armonk, N.Y., shop. But with only 3,000 square feet, she struggled to figure out where to put her expanding line of furniture, lighting fixtures and accessories. Her solution: create sections within the shop and arrange the furniture the way customers might imagine it at home, using low bookcases and folding screens as dividers.

When we published our massive review on how much an app costs back in 2015, we had no idea it would become the top resource on the web. Two years later, that piece is still considered the definitive resource for app development costs in our industry. It’s because of its popularity that I feel compelled to revisit this subject. Additionally, doing so will allow for some fresh perspectives based on what's changed in the app industry as well as another way to look at the topic.


As part of my antique restoration work I do a lot of faux finishing – hence the supply of stains and paints. Since I didn’t want to dust the house, the new shop is not connected to the house heat and air system. But, having just finished our first winter I now know the shop didn’t get below 45 degrees – and, the oven in the corner can make the shop toasty in no time at all.


I’m a 60 year young widow who just bought a bright yellow 2003 S10 step side with the intention of camping in it. But I discovered that finding a used S10 step side topper is harder than finding hen’s teeth!! Buying a new one wasn’t an option. Just found a black step side topper for a Ford Ranger. Isn’t a perfect fit but it works. And the colors compliment each other although color wasn’t my primary concern. I took two days to drive from the St. Louis area of MO to the Kansas City area to pick it up.
Finding reliable cellular service (and the internet that comes with it) is a constant challenge in vanlife, especially if you do computer-based work on the road. A cell signal booster like the WeBoost Drive 4G-X helps a lot in areas where service is spotty. It can take a weak cellular signal and amplify it into usable internet for web browsing and getting work done.
When it does come time to choose a long-term space and negotiate a deal, it’s important to remember that there is more to discuss than just the monthly rental rate. Subjects you’ll want to raise include the proposed length of your lease and options for renewal, responsibility for ongoing maintenance and repairs, payment of utilities, and obligations around property insurance. Parking rights are also essential for many, especially businesses located in a small shopping center.
When I change blades on my band saw, I usually need to adjust the thrust bearings and guides with an Allen wrench. I was tired of hunting around for the wrench, so I decided to stick it to the steel housing with a rare earth magnet (neodymium) about the size of a jacket button. Now it’s always handy! — Bill Wells. You can also use a magnet on your ladder.
The ARB fridge 50-Qt Fridge is the best of the best. ARB is an Australian 4x4 accessories company, and all of their products are built to withstand just about anything. The ARB fridge is extremely rugged, and features powder-coated zinc steel construction for the ultimate in durability. It can take a beating, and works just fine on inclines up to 30°.
On a more mundane, but equally important note, the costs of retroactively fixing errors in a name choice or a business structure can be enormous, both in your time and in real-terms. It is therefore important that you do your research and establish the correct legal structure for your business early on. Still not sure what steps you need to take to incorporate your business? Visit BizFilings.com to learn more about the first five steps you need to take when incorporating your business.
Plywood comes in several different types, the most common being pine and lauan. We used ¼” lauan plywood for the walls in our van. Lauan is cheap, it bends easily, and in our opinion its grain pattern looks nicer than pine. Hardwood plywood like birch costs more than pine or lauan, it weighs more, and it’s more difficult to bend. This type of plywood is a great option for furniture, but we think lauan is a better choice for your walls and ceiling.
Ok, the leap from $1,000 to $2,500 is a big one.  I certainly didn't make it at one time.  It took me years.  But I know folks that decided they wanted to get into woodworking and dropped at least $2,500 getting themselves outfitted.  When you do make the jump, the thought process becomes much less about making sure you can get the job done and becomes more about having quality tools to get the job done.

Every shop should have good lighting, whether natural or artificial. My video work dictates limited natural light, so I was sure to have plenty of overhead T8 fixtures (6500k). You’ll hear me mention in the video that I was disappointed to see that the ends of the shop were just a little dark. Thankfully, I was able to get the contractor to come back in and drop in 4 more fixtures for me, two at either end. Now the light is bright, crisp, and evenly distributed from one side of the shop to the other.
Ultimate Small Shop is a turnkey solution for woodworkers to get started with their dream workshop. Every woodworker, hobbyist or professional, wants a nice workshop in their home. It may be the garage or a shed, the barn or a detached man cave, the basement or a room up somewhere with enough space. Woodworkers often fail to create their dream workshops due to dearth of space and funds. Ultimate Small Shop solves both these issues and empowers woodworkers to live their dreams.

I was really excited after seeing your shop video. It was almost like you read my mind (except my plans does have more windows and a wood burning stove as I live in TN). I realized the importance of more 22o plugins after you explained your reasoning. I was just planning a couple. Love the floor and ceiling plugins. One quick question. Is each plugin area on it own breaker, or do you have more then one on each breaker. I was planing on each one to have its own breaker. Love your approach on your projects and how you introduce new items or products. Thanks and Merry Christmas

A not for compensation nonexclusive arrangement, on the other hand, gives a tenant maximum flexibility. It’s nonbinding and there are no commissions negotiated. Instead, it gives the broker the right to speak on your behalf and schedule listings for you to see. However, while it provides flexibility, this arrangement gives the tenant broker less of a fiduciary duty.
Chris Marshall: You’re asking a question that would take many magazine articles or a whole chapter of a good shop-design book to answer adequately. If you haven’t already done so, you might also want to ask this question to the good folks that frequent our forum on woodworking.com. Every woodworker with a shop will have a slightly different answer, so here’s mine. I’ve never had a brick shop, but my last one was a metal pole barn (30 ft. x 40 ft.). I outfitted the interior with 2×6-framed walls and plenty of insulation. It stayed reasonably cool in the summer and warm in the winter, using a wall air conditioner and a 60,000 BTU furnace. Currently, I have a 24 ft. x 42 ft. garage space for my shop. It is framed conventionally with 2×6 walls and stick-built 2×10 rafters. I’ve only been in my new shop for about a year, but it is working just as well or better than my pole barn did, because the new shop has many large windows that let in lots more natural light. I’ve used 8-ft. fluorescent T8 light fixtures in both buildings with good success, and I ran both 110- and 220-volt outlets all around the room. The last shop had a plywood floor; the current one, a concrete slab. I thought I would notice a bigger difference between the two flooring types, in terms of how tired it makes my legs by the end of the day. But in all honesty, a good pair of supportive shoes seems to make the difference moot for me. Both types of buildings benefit from a dehumidifier during humid months (when I’m not running the A/C, that is) to keep the relative humidity low and my tools rust-free. If all things were equal, and money were no object, I would probably go with a conventionally framed wood building over the pole barn. It was easier to build that from scratch as opposed to retrofitting the pole barn framing with walls afterward. But, as I say, the next woodworker will probably offer you a completely different answer from mine. Good luck in your decision!
Remember, your retail store layout guides product placement, directs customer flow, and defines the overall look and feel of your store, so it deserves plenty of thought. Many factors will affect your floor plan choice, including the size and shape of your sales floor, the types of products you sell, and even the customers you hope to attract. Keep these factors in mind as we explore each floor plan option in detail.

If you’ve been to gem shows, you know how overwhelming and daunting they can be. Although it’s difficult to narrow down all those tempting options, your jewelry business profit margin will be greater if you plan ahead and focus on shopping for a particular line and color scheme of jewelry. Ultimate Small Shop Online Review You must keep the bigger picture in mind and try to keep your emotions out of the design process. Here are some tips for defining your market and researching it so that you can walk in and out of a gemstone show feeling confident in the business investments you’ve just made. Gemstone shows and fairs are marketplaces for vendors of gemstones, findings, jewelry supplies, and tools. Due to a large amount of competition between the vendors, prices tend to be competitive. I’ve found unbelievable deals on high-quality gemstones and findings at gem shows. To find gem shows near you, you can simply do a Google search for “gemstone show” or “gem fair”. Other sources of information are your local convention and visitors’ bureau and any lapidary clubs in your area. Anyone can attend most gemstone shows. Although you don’t usually need a wholesale license to get in, some vendors may ask for your resale permit before letting you buy at wholesale prices. Show admission fees tend to be in the $5 to $10 dollar range. What market are you trying to target with your jewelry? Don’t try to please everyone. Ultimate Small Shop does it really work Are you trying to appeal to individuals like yourself? What age bracket are you trying to reach? Does your jewelry line appeal to funky or traditional individuals? Next, take a trip to your local department store and take note of the colors that are being used for the upcoming season. Look at the jewelry and observe the lengths of the earrings/necklaces, the sizes of the stones, and the other various style elements for the season. While your designs should not be copies or replicas of the jewelry in the stores, you can simply incorporate the observations you make into your own original design ideas. Fashion and jewelry magazines are also a great place to find out what trends are coming into the stores. There will be an overwhelming array of gemstones and supplies at the show. Having a jewelry line style and color scheme in mind will allow you to narrow your focus. Vendors will offer gemstones in more shapes, sizes, cuts, and colors than you can imagine. Stick to the colors you’ve mapped out for yourself and walk through the entire gem show once before buying anything. Jot down and compare the prices of items that you’re interested in. Then take a break, go outside for some fresh air, and reflect on the items you saw and really liked. Then review your budget and the jewelry line you have in mind before returning into the gemstone show. Ultimate Small Shop Guide Download This will help you get the best deals on the items you’re most interested in so that you don’t blow your budget or become overwhelmed by the options. Soaring through the air, watching the clouds and the birds fly by.
My advice here is to make a detailed list of what the various parts of the build will be (drawings, permits, foun­dation, framing, electrical, etc.) and decide what you would like to do yourself and what you will need to hire others to do. Get quotes on the work that you would like to hire out and estimate the materials you will need to do your por­tion. You may want to factor in your time into the cost as well, especially if you will be passing up other income to work on the project. At some lumberyards, you will be able to give detailed drawings to an estimator on staff who will do a material takeoff list for you of what you’ll need and what it will cost. When all the numbers come in, you can put together a budget and plan for an overrun allowance of around 15 percent. If you keep track of the materials and subcontract costs as you go, you can stay on track and make decisions as you go about the latter stages of the project without regretting it later. If it is challenging to obtain fund­ing for a complete build, you may want to stage the build so that initially the frame goes up and the exterior is finished, and then you finish the interior work as you have time or as funds become available.

Can you outfit your shop with all the necessary hand tools for just $100? Christopher Schwarz says you can, and he’ll show you how to do it in this article. Take Christopher’s shopping list to the flea market and come back with everything you need for less than you’d spend on one new hand plane. You can do all your woodworking with hand tools, and this article from Popular Woodworking will equip you with everything you need.
We cut the supports 16 in. long, but you can place the second shelf at whatever height you like. Screw the end supports to the walls at each end. Use drywall anchors if you can’t hit a stud. Then mark the position of the middle supports onto the top and bottom shelves with a square and drill 5/32-in. clearance holes through the shelves. Drive 1-5/8-in. screws through the shelf into the supports. You can apply this same concept to garage storage. See how to build double-decker garage storage shelves here.

Small business owners can maintain steady, manageable growth by keeping a firm eye on costs and always aggressively looking for ways to increase sales and grow their brand. It can be difficult to empower staff and managers around you, especially if you’ve spent a long time steering the ship alone, but it is an essential part of successful expansion. Stay open to suggestions from your managers while making your current business best practices clear to them.
From a legal perspective, this lack of uniqueness doesn’t need to be a major concern. According to the rules governing business incorporation in most states, if you find yourself opening with the exact same name as another business, you can keep it as long as “your business and the existing business offer different goods/services or are located in different regions.”
However, since you may not have "aisles" per say in your store, it's still important to think about grouping products in a way that makes sense from a shopper's perspective. Also, remember to keep "higher-demand" products displayed at eye-level while placing lower-grossing products at the bottom or above eye level. Lastly, It's recommended that you change up these speed bumps weekly or regularly enough to create a continued sense of novelty for repeat visitors. 
My advice here is to make a detailed list of what the various parts of the build will be (drawings, permits, foun­dation, framing, electrical, etc.) and decide what you would like to do yourself and what you will need to hire others to do. Get quotes on the work that you would like to hire out and estimate the materials you will need to do your por­tion. You may want to factor in your time into the cost as well, especially if you will be passing up other income to work on the project. At some lumberyards, you will be able to give detailed drawings to an estimator on staff who will do a material takeoff list for you of what you’ll need and what it will cost. When all the numbers come in, you can put together a budget and plan for an overrun allowance of around 15 percent. If you keep track of the materials and subcontract costs as you go, you can stay on track and make decisions as you go about the latter stages of the project without regretting it later. If it is challenging to obtain fund­ing for a complete build, you may want to stage the build so that initially the frame goes up and the exterior is finished, and then you finish the interior work as you have time or as funds become available.
BEST ANSWER: Hi, I probably can't help, depending on where you are in the process. If the bench in the photo looks like it's just what you need, you should download the plan. I think Rockler has several ready to assemble benches that look quite good. Example: Large Workbench (N2000) Item #: 31719... I. too, am retired and trying to decide whether to buy or build. I have a bench that looks good and works good, but just is too light for hand work. It all depends on what you expect to be using the bench for. There are some good books out there to help us decide. "The Workbench" by Lon Schleining" is excellent. Also, Christopher Schwarz has written several good books on the subject. Vince, good luck and have fun working wood.
One of the most important and often overlooked first steps when starting a small business is preparing a business plan. Many entrepreneurs who hear this might panic. And while the value of writing a business plan is often debated, those who complete them are nearly twice as likely to successfully grow their businesses or obtain capital compared to those who don’t. More on this in part three of How to Start a Small Business 101, Components of a Business Plan.
Conduction is heat transferred across solid surfaces- think touching a hot stove. It’s also how heat gets out of your van in the winter. The heat inside your van is conducted through the solid surface of your walls and ceiling. Insulating the inside of your van will help prevent heat loss through conduction during the winter, and will also stop your van from conducting the sun’s heat inside during the summer.
Now nobody reasonably expects you to actually hit that exact number in five years time, but the point here is accountability. A really great small business plan forces you to think through your goals, associate a dollar value with each, and articulate clearly how you will make them a reality. By declaring your projected revenue in month seven or your expenses in year five, you are giving yourself a benchmark for success.
Ever wonder why you walk into a supermarket and the first thing you see is fruits and vegetables rather than toilet cleaner? The complex art of displaying arrangement and the perfectly optimized in-store customer journey can seem like some sort of semi-magical, commercial Feng-Shui. But it’s actually just business 101. At its core, store design is a fairly simple exercise. Think about your shop’s layout from a customer point of view and consider what might surprise and delight you, what might annoy you, and most importantly, what might convince you to make a purchase.
We did a lot of research and landed on the Bestek 300W Power Inverter. We usually had our devices plugged in while we were driving so they'd be charged by the time we parked for the night. And if we were ever really in a pinch, we would plug it in for 10 minutes with the car off, then another 10 minutes with the car running until it was sufficiently charged.
In addition to sheer power, look for a model with a built-in thermostat so you can set it and forget it. This convenience feature is well worth it so you don’t have to stop what you’re doing mid-project to manually turn your heater on and off to maintain your desired temp. A good garage heater will mount to the wall or ceiling to save space and will come with a durable housing and full safety screen to keep dust and wood chips from reaching the heating elements and starting a fire.

Now, this is kind of an odd situation here, a few years ago when we bought this building there was a concrete block wall around here and a large drain right in the middle of the floor. Well the drain will certainly come in handy for any cleanup in the shop but the walls kind of left us when we removed those kind of left us a little divot and a little bit of damage here, so to make this nice and smooth so that our rolling workbenches will roll around real nicely we’re having to do a good bit of floor patch.
YouTube: I love this place! You can find video training's on just about everything! It can  help you with a lot of the tasks that you need to accomplish for your goal. So if you want to "sell products using Instagram" and one of the tasks is: post beautiful photos with text on my feed often, then you probably need to go on YouTube and search for "how to design an Instagram post, if you don't know the first thing about it. You can use YouTube to help you accomplish goals or tasks on your list that is out of your skill set. 

There’s a reason why some of the biggest players online have names that are essentially gobbledegook: Zappos, Skype, Zynga. While there’s certainly some psychological naming principles that often come into play, at the most basic level, it’s simply easier to find this space online and then strive to own the brand name in the minds of consumers. How important this will be to your small business will depend on a number of variables, including your intended size, location, and your desire to exploit ecommerce as well as a local brick-and-mortar business.
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